Wednesday, August 23, 2017

[Crustacea • 2017] Terrapotamon thungwa • A Second New Species of Terrestrial Long-legged Terrapotamon Ng, 1986 (Brachyura: Potamidae) from Karst Forests in Peninsular Thailand

 Terrapotamon thungwa
Promdam, Yeesin & Ng. 2017

ปูเขาหินปูนแดงทุ่งหว้า || RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65 

 A new species of potamid crab of the genus Terrapotamon Ng, 1986, is described from karst forests in Satun, Peninsular Thailand. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp. has very long ambulatory legs and superficially resembles T. longitarsus, the only other long-legged species in the genus. They can easily be distinguished by life colouration, carapace features, as well as structures of the epistome, male thoracic sternum, cheliped and male first gonopod. 

Key words: Freshwater crab, new species, Potamidae, Peninsular Thailand, karst, caves, taxonomy

Family Potamidae Ortmann, 1896
Subfamily Potamiscinae Bott, 1970, sensu Yeo & Ng, 2004
Genus Terrapotamon Ng, 1986

Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp.

Fig. 1. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., colour in life from Satun, Thailand.
A–C, holotype male (44.6 × 35.0 mm) (ZRC 2016.0595).

Fig. 8. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., observed in the cave at Ban Namtok Than Plio, Amphoe Thung Wa, Satun, Thailand. A, paratype male (41.1 × 33.3 mm) (PSUZC-CRU-0072).

Fig. 8. Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., observed in the cave at Ban Namtok Than Plio, Amphoe Thung Wa, Satun, Thailand.  B, C, paratype female (29.4 × 23.8 mm) (PSUZC-CRU-0073).

Fig. 9B, Terrapotamon thungwa n. sp., specimen observed in cave in Ban Namtok Than Plio, Amphoe Thung Wa, Satun, Thailand.

Fig. 6. Terrapotamon longitarsus  Lheknim & Ng, 2016 paratype male (40.8 × 32.5 mm) (PSUZC 20150726-01.01), Satun, Thailand.

Etymology. The name is derived from the type locality at Amphoe Thung Wa. The name is used as a noun in apposition. 

Remarks. The long ambulatory legs of T. thungwa n. sp. is a character shared only by one other species of Terrapotamon, T. longitarsus Lheknim & Ng, 2016, also from the Satun area in Peninsular Thailand. It is surprising to find two similar species occurring in the same area, but the differences between the two species are very marked and leave no doubt they are separate taxa. Terrapotamon thungwa can most easily be separated in its bright red overall coloration in life (Figs. 1, 8A) (purple in T. longitarsus; Fig. 6); ....

Habitat. All the specimens of Terrapotamon thungwa were obtained from the karst landscape of Satun. From the material collected, it would appear that the area and habitat where T. thungwa occurs overlaps with T. longitarsus. Both species were found inside and outside the caves as well as in the karst forest. In the dark zone inside the cave, adults of T. thungwa were observed climbing on the cave walls (Fig. 8B, C), with a small specimen observed in a pool on the cave floor (Fig. 9A, B). Up to five specimens have been observed on the cave floor. Adult males of both two species were observed in rock pools at the bottom of deep crevices in the karst forest, while a small specimen of T. longitarsus were seen at a sheltered rock pool near the cave entrance (Fig. 9C, D). The crabs use these collected pools to replenish their gill chambers.


Rueangrit Promdam, Pun Yeesin and Peter K. L. Ng. 2017. A Second New Species of Terrestrial Long-legged Terrapotamon Ng, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Karst Forests in Peninsular Thailand. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 65; 404–415.

Vachira Lheknim and Peter K.L. Ng. 2016. A New Species of Long-legged Terrestrial Terrapotamon Ng, 1986 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Limestone Formations in Satun, southern Thailand.  Zootaxa. 4200(1); 143–152. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.6

[Paleontology • 2017] Serikornis sungei • A New Jurassic Theropod from China Documents A Transitional Step in the Macrostructure of Feathers

Serikornis sungei
Lefèvre, Cau, Cincotta, Hu, Chinsamy, Escuillié & Godefroit, 2017

 Illustration: E. Willoughby
Genuine fossils with exquisitely preserved plumage from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of northeastern China have recently revealed that bird-like theropod dinosaurs had long pennaceous feathers along their hindlimbs and may have used their four wings to glide or fly. Thus, it has been postulated that early bird flight might initially have involved four wings (Xu et al. Nature 421:335–340, 2003; Hu et al. Nature 461:640–643, 2009; Han et al. Nat Commun 5:4382, 2014). Here, we describe Serikornis sungei gen. et sp. nov., a new feathered theropod from the Tiaojishan Fm (Late Jurassic) of Liaoning Province, China. Its skeletal morphology suggests a ground-dwelling ecology with no flying adaptations. Our phylogenetic analysis places Serikornis, together with other Late Jurassic paravians from China, as a basal paravians, outside the Eumaniraptora clade. The tail of Serikornis is covered proximally by filaments and distally by slender rectrices. Thin symmetrical remiges lacking barbules are attached along its forelimbs and elongate hindlimb feathers extend up to its toes, suggesting that hindlimb remiges evolved in ground-dwelling maniraptorans before being co-opted to an arboreal lifestyle or flight.

Keywords: Paraves, Birds, Feathers, Barbules, Jurassic, Flight evolution 

 the basal bird Serikornis sungei sp. nov. [PMOL-AB00200] from the Middle-Late Jurassic of north-eastern China. 

Fig. 1 Photograph and drawing of the basal bird Serikornis sungei sp. nov. from the Middle-Late Jurassic of north-eastern China.
 a PMOL-AB00200 photograph. b Line drawing.

 Abbreviations: cev cervical vertebrae, co coracoids, cv caudal vertebrae, fu furcula, il ilium, is ischium, lf left femur, lfi left fibula, lh left humerus, lma left manus, lpes left pes, lr left radius, ls left scapula, lt left tibia, lu left ulna, pu pubis, ra radiale, rf right femur, rh right humerus, rma right manus, rpes right pes, rr right radius, rt right tibia, ru right ulna, sk skull

Systematic palaeontology

Theropoda Marsh, 1881
Maniraptora Gauthier, 1986
Paraves Sereno, 1997; Avialae Gauthier, 1986

Serikornis sungei gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: Serikos, ancient Greek for silk, because the body is almost covered with plumulaceous-like feathers; Ornis, ancient Greek for bird; named in honour of Sun Ge, for his contribution to our knowledge of Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems in Asia.

Holotype: PMOL-AB00200 is a single complete articulated skeleton with associated integumentary structures preserved on a slab. The counterpart is missing, but most of the skeleton is preserved on the main slab.

Locality and horizon: PMOL-AB00200 was collected in the Tiaojishan Formation (Oxfordian, Upper Jurassic; Chu et al. 2016) from Daxishan village, Linglongta (Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China).

Diagnosis: Serikornis is characterized by the following combination of characters (autapomorphies are marked with an asterisk): four anterior maxillary teeth twice as long as the others regarding the crown height*; coracoid tuber well-developed and laterally projected from the lateral margin of the coracoid and forming a subglenoid shelf along the caudoventral margin of the bone; the distal end of the lateral process of the coracoid is thicker than the proximal part and forms a ventral rounded bump; ventrodistal process of ischium narrow, hook-like, strongly deflected caudodorsally and set at the distal end of the ischium*; smooth ventral side of coracoid devoid of small pits.


Illustration: Emily Willoughby

Ulysse Lefèvre, Andrea Cau, Aude Cincotta, Dongyu Hu, Anusuya Chinsamy, François Escuillié and Pascal Godefroit. 2017. A New Jurassic Theropod from China Documents A Transitional Step in the Macrostructure of Feathers. The Science of Nature. 104:74. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-017-1496-y 


[Crustacea • 2017] Pseudosesarma glabrum • A New Species of Pseudosesarma Serène & Soh, 1970 (Brachyura: Sesarmidae) from Cochin in southwestern India

Pseudosesarma glabrum Ng, Rani & Nandan, 2017


A new species of mangrove sesarmid crab of the genus Pseudosesarma Serène & Soh, 1970, is described from Cochin, southwest India. The species superficially resembles P. edwardsii (De Man, 1887), known from Myanmar and many parts of India; the proportions of the carapace and male pleon also ally it with P. crassimanum (De Man, 1887) from Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Pseudosesarma glabrum n. sp., however, is easily separated from P. edwardsii and P. crassimanum primarily by the almost glabrous dorsal surface of the carapace and the distinctive form of its male first gonopod.

Keywords: Kerala, India, taxonomy, Sesarmidae, mangroves

Peter K. L. Ng, Varghese Rani and S. Bijoy Nandan. 2017. A New Species of Pseudosesarma Serène & Soh, 1970 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Sesarmidae) from Cochin in southwestern India.
  Zootaxa.  4311(2); 263–270. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4311.2.7

[Gastropoda • 2017] A Review of the Land Snail Genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

 Alycaeus alticola sp. n., BOR/MOL 8398 Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 8399 Alycaeus clementsi sp. n., BOR/MOL 8364 Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., BOR/MOL 6811 Alycaeus expansus sp. n., BOR/MOL 6367Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6851  T Alycaeus regalis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6881 V Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6249.
All photographs by Junn Kitt Foon.

Foon & Liew, 2017

A total of 11 species and 1 subspecies of Alycaeus were recognised in Peninsular Malaysia prior to this study. However, these taxonomic descriptions of Alycaeus taxa were based on limited numbers of examined materials, where a whole spectrum of morphological variations were not accounted for and diagnoses were often provided without sufficient comparison between congeners from across the peninsula. We reviewed Peninsular Malaysian Alycaeus through the examination of 5137 specimens in 522 collection lots from all major museum collections and literature sources. Based on these examined materials, we utilised a more comprehensive revised set of 39 shell and operculum characters, as well as living animal colour to describe all Alycaeus species in this paper. We also noted their habitat and ecology, as well as updated the distribution of each species. Of the 12 previously described taxa, 10 are reconfirmed as present on Peninsular Malaysia (Alycaeus balingensis, Alycaeus carinata, Alycaeus conformis, Alycaeus gibbosulus, Alycaeus kapayanensis, Alycaeus kelantanensis, Alycaeus liratulus, Alycaeus perakensis perakensis, Alycaeus perakensis altispirus and Alycaeus thieroti) and 2 are confirmed as absent from the peninsula (Alycaeus jagori and Alycaeus pyramidalis). A new record of Alycaeus robeleni is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. One species, Chamalycaeus jousseaumei is confirmed as present on the peninsula and is reassigned to Alycaeus. The subspecies Alycaeus perakensis altispirus Möllendorff, 1902, is elevated to species. Examined Peninsular Malaysian materials that do not fit previously recognised species are described as new species. A total of 11 new species are proposed (Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n., Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., Alycaeus ikanensis sp. n., Alycaeus alticola sp. n., Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., Alycaeus regalis sp. n., Alycaeus virgogravida sp. n., Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., Alycaeus expansus sp. n., Alycaeus clementsi sp. n.). Overall, 23 species of Alycaeus are now recognised in Peninsular Malaysia.

Keywords: land snail, shell morphology, operculum, Alycaeinae, limestone karsts, Southeast Asia

Figure 7. Photographs of 18 living Alycaeus species. 
AAlycaeus balingensis Tomlin, 1948, BOR/MOL 8356 Alycaeus liratulus (Preston, 1907), BOR/MOL 8334 Alycaeus thieroti Morgan, 1885b, BOR/MOL 6835 Alycaeus conformis Fulton, 1902, BOR/MOL 6809 Alycaeus gibbosulus Stoliczka, 1872, BOR/MOL 6850 Alycaeus gibbosulus Stoliczka, 1872, BOR/MOL 8526 Alycaeus jousseaumei Morgan, 1885a, BOR/MOL 8341 Alycaeus jousseaumei Morgan, 1885a, BOR/MOL 8336 J Alycaeus alticola sp. n., BOR/MOL 8398 K Alycaeus charasensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 8399 L Alycaeus clementsi sp. n., BOR/MOL 8364 
All photographs by Junn Kitt Foon.

Figure 7. Photographs of 18 living Alycaeus species.  
Alycaeus costacrassa sp. n., BOR/MOL 6811 N Alycaeus expansus sp. n., BOR/MOL 6367 O Alycaeus kapayanensis Morgan, 1885b, BOR/MOL 13005 P Alycaeus kelantanensis Sykes, 1902, BOR/MOL 8325 Q Alycaeus kelantanensis Sykes, 1902, BOR/MOL 6200 R Alycaeus kurauensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6851 S Alycaeus perakensis Crosse, 1879a, BOR/MOL 6852 T Alycaeus regalis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6881 U Alycaeus selangoriensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6371 VW Alycaeus senyumensis sp. n., BOR/MOL 6249.
 All photographs by Junn Kitt Foon.

 Junn Kitt Foon and Thor-Seng Liew. 2017. A Review of the Land Snail Genus Alycaeus (Gastropoda, Alycaeidae) in Peninsular Malaysia. 
 ZooKeys. 692; 1-81. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.692.14706

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

[Herpetology • 2017] Theloderma pyaukkya • A New Cryptic Species of the Theloderma asperum Complex (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Myanmar

Theloderma pyaukkya Dever, 2017

I describe a new species of Theloderma from two regions in Myanmar (Chin State in western Myanmar and Kachin State in northern Myanmar). Highly similar in appearance and size to Theloderma albopunctatum and Theloderma asperum, the new species differs by the presence of small, bilateral vocal sac openings absent in T. albopunctatum and T. asperum. Molecular phylogenetic analysis from two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene fragments infers that individuals are members of a unique genetic lineage within the T. asperum Complex.

FIG. 6. Theloderma pyaukkya sp. nov., paratype CAS 234869, adult male, dorsolateral view. 

Theloderma pyaukkya sp. nov. 
Burmese Camouflaged Tree Frog

Etymology.— Specific epithet pyaukkya (pronounced pee-ew-cha) is Burmese for camouflaged, which reflects the frog’s cryptic coloration.

Jennifer A. Dever. 2017. A New Cryptic Species of the Theloderma asperum Complex (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Myanmar. Journal of Herpetology. 51(3); 425–436.  DOI: 10.1670/17-026


[Crustacea • 2017] New Sibling Species and New Occurrences of Squat Lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the western Indian Ocean

AMunida limula Macpherson & Baba, 1993, ♂, 3.4 mm, Madagascar.
 B. Munida mesembria sp. nov., paratype, ♀, 6.5 mm, Mozambique. 
C. Munida micra sp. nov., holotype, ♂, 3.7 mm, Mozambique. 
DMunida muscae Macpherson & de Saint Laurent, 2002, ♂, 3.2 mm, Madagascar. 

Macpherson, Rodríguez-Flores & Machordom, 2017   


Numerous specimens of squat lobsters belonging to the families Munididae, Munidopsidae and Eumunididae were collected during several cruises along the eastern coasts of Africa. The study of these specimens revealed the presence of 10 new species (one Eumunida Smith, 1883, eight Munida Leach, 1820 and one Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874). We describe and illustrate these new species, providing some new data on occurrences and colour patterns for previously described taxa. We have also included molecular data from two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and COI) to support the taxonomic status of different species. Some deep-sea species show a clear increase in their geographic range distribution. Finally, a key to known species of the genus Munida from the western and central Indian Ocean is also presented.

Keywords: Eumunididae; Munididae; Munidopsidae; COI; 16S

Fig. 12. Dorsal view. Colours in life. AMunida limula Macpherson & Baba, 1993, ♂, 3.4 mm, Madagascar, ATIMO VATAE, Stn TP12. B. Munida mesembria sp. nov., paratype, ♀, 6.5 mm, Mozambique, MAINBAZA, Stn CP3130. C. Munida micra sp. nov., holotype, ♂, 3.7 mm, Mozambique, MAINBAZA, Stn CC3165. DMunida muscae Macpherson & de Saint Laurent, 2002, ♂, 3.2 mm, Madagascar, MIRIKY, Stn DW3179. 

Enrique Macpherson, Paula C. Rodríguez-Flores and Annie Machordom. 2017.   New Sibling Species and New Occurrences of Squat Lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the western Indian Ocean.  European Journal of Taxonomy.   1–61.  DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2017.343

[Entomology • 2017] Dendrobia gen. nov. • A New Genus and other New Species of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae; Conocephalinae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains, East Africa

Dendrobia amaniensis  
Hemp, Ingrisch & Heller, 2017


The genus Dendrobia n. gen. is erected to include Dendrobia amaniensis n. sp. from the East Usambara Mountains as type species. A second species in this genus, Dendrobia octopuncata n. sp., is described from the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. Dendrobia n. gen. is a canopy dweller found only high up on trees in closed submontane and montane forest. The peak frequency of its song is lower than in all other known African Agraeciini, correlating with the large resonant areas in the tegmina. Two new Afroanthracites species, Afroanthracites ngologolo n. sp. and Afroanthracites nguru n. sp. are described from the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. These species are dwellers of understory vegetation in closed forest in the Udzungwa and Nguru Mountains respectively.

Keywords: Orthoptera, new genus, new species, Eastern Arc Mountains, East Africa, bioacoustics

Claudia Hemp, Sigfrid Ingrisch and Klaus-Gerhard Heller. 2017. A New Genus and other New Species of Agraeciini from the Eastern Arc Mountains, East Africa (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae; Conocephalinae; Agraeciini). Zootaxa. 4311(1); 1–22. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4311.1.1

[Herpetology • 2017] Nasikabatrachus bhupathi • A New Species of the Genus Nasikabatrachus (Anura, Nasikabatrachidae) from the eastern Slopes of the Western Ghats, India

Nasikabatrachus bhupathi 
Janani, Vasudevan, Prendini, Dutta & Aggarwal, 2017

We describe a new species of the endemic frog genus Nasikabatrachus, from the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, in India. The new species is morphologically, acoustically and genetically distinct from N. sahyadrensis. Computed tomography scans of both species revealed diagnostic osteological differences, particularly in the vertebral column. Male advertisement call analysis also showed the two species to be distinct. A phenological difference in breeding season exists between the new species (which breeds during the northeast monsoon season; October to December), and its sister species (which breeds during the southwest monsoon; May to August). The new species shows 6 % genetic divergence (K2P) at mitochondrial 16S rRNA (1330 bp) partial gene from its congener, indicating clear differentiation within Nasikabatrachus. Speciation within this fossorial lineage is hypothesized to have been caused by phenological shift in breeding during different monsoon seasons—the northeast monsoon in the new species versus southwest monsoon in N. sahyadrensis. It is postulated that proximate triggers of breeding behavior and highly stenotopic adaptation of Nasikabatrachus tadpoles to inhabit cascades during monsoonal stream flows, have led to allopatry on the eastern and western slopes of the Western Ghats, thereby promoting speciation in this ancient genus.

Figure 3. Holotype of Nasikabatrachus bhupathi. (a) dorsolateral view; (b) anterior view of head showing fleshy protuberance on the snout; (c) underside of foot, showing hypertrophied shovel-shaped inner metatarsal tubercle; (d) underside of hand showing palmar tubercles.

Nasikabatrachus bhupathi sp. nov.

Etymology: The species epithet commemorates Dr. S. Bhupathy, a noted scientist and a field herpetologist, who passed away due to an ill-fated accident while conducting herpetological surveys in Agasthyamalai, Western Ghats on April 28, 2014.

Figure 10. External morphology of tadpoles of Nasikabatrachus bhupathi.
 (a) dorsal view; (b) ventral view at stage 36, with developing hind limbs, vent tube still present; (c) dorsal view at stage 41, with completely developed hind limbs and visible forelimb bud; (d) dorsal view at stage 42, with both forelimbs erupted; (e) ventral view at stage 42, where one of the forelimbs had erupted completely and the other is yet to erupt, absence of vent tube; (f) dorsal view at stage 43, with transforming snout; (gci) stage 44¢45, showing ventral and dorsal side, transforming oral disc and tail stub; (j) developed imago showing pigmentation pattern of brown and black mottles.


S. Jegath Janani, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Elizabeth Prendini, Sushil Kumar Dutta and Ramesh K. Aggarwal. 2017. A New Species of the Genus Nasikabatrachus (Anura, Nasikabatrachidae) from the eastern Slopes of the Western Ghats, India. Alytes. 34: 1-19.

[Paleontology • 2017] Shringasaurus indicus • A New Horned and Long-necked Herbivorous Stem-Archosaur from the Middle Triassic of India

Shringasaurus indicus 
Sengupta, Ezcurra & Bandyopadhyay, 2017

Illustration: Gabriel Lio
   DOI: s41598-017-08658-8 

The early evolution of archosauromorphs (bird- and crocodile-line archosaurs and stem-archosaurs) represents an important case of adaptive radiation that occurred in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Here we enrich the early archosauromorph record with the description of a moderately large (3–4 m in total length), herbivorous new allokotosaurian, Shringasaurus indicus, from the early Middle Triassic of India. The most striking feature of Shringasaurus indicus is the presence of a pair of large supraorbital horns that resemble those of some ceratopsid dinosaurs. The presence of horns in the new species is dimorphic and, as occurs in horned extant bovid mammals, these structures were probably sexually selected and used as weapons in intraspecific combats. The relatively large size and unusual anatomy of Shringasaurus indicus broadens the morphological diversity of Early–Middle Triassic tetrapods and complements the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the early archosauromorph diversification.

Figure 3: Skeletal anatomy of Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov. (a) Left premaxilla (ISIR 793) in lateral view. (b) Left maxilla (ISIR 795) in lateral view. (c) Left quadrate (ISIR 797) in lateral view. (d) Axis (ISIR 803) in left lateral view. (e) Posterior cervical vertebra (ISIR 820) in left lateral view. (f,g) Anterior dorsal vertebra (ISIR 825) in left lateral view in (f), and anterior view in (g). (h) Two anterior caudal vertebrae (ISIR 875) in right lateral view (mirrored). (i) Posterior caudal vertebra (ISIR 892) in left lateral view. (j) Right femur (ISIR 1016) in ventral view. (k) Left ilium (ISIR 991) in lateral view. (l), (m) Right astragalus and fused lateral centrale (ISIR 1059) in proximal view in (l), and dorsal view in (m). (n) Interclavicle (ISIR 950) in ventral view. (o) Left clavicle (ISIR 948) in medial view. (p) Left humerus (ISIR 951) in ventral view. (q) Left scapula (ISIR 929) and coracoid (ISIR 941) in lateral view. (r) Tooth crown (ISIR 801A) in labial view.

Scales = 1 cm for (a–c,i,m,l), 2 cm for (d–h,j,k,n–q), and 1 mm for (r), and skeleton = 25 cm. a. articulates with; ac, acetabulum; ain, axial intercentrum; ap, anterior process; ca, calcaneum; ce, lateral centrale; de, denticles; dpc, deltopectoral crest; fi, fibula; gf, glenoid fossa; gr, groove; hqh, hooked quadrate head; icl, interclavicle; itr, internal trochanter; la, lacrimal; lp, lateral process; mp, mammillary process; nag, non-articular gap; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pgp, postglenoid process; pnp, postnasal process; pof, popliteal fossa; pop, postacetabular process; pp, parapophysis; ppr, posterior process; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prp, preacetabular process; prz, prezygapophysis; qj, quadratojugal; sac, supraacetabular crest; sc, scapula; sgl, subglenoid lip; spdl, spinodiapophyseal lamina; sprdl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; ti, tibia.

Figure 2: Cranial anatomy of Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov. and comparison with the skull of a ceratopsid dinosaur that possesses convergent supraorbital horns. (a) Reconstruction of the skull of Shringasaurus indicus in left lateral view. (b) Drawing of the skull of Arrhinoceratops brachyops in left lateral view (based on ROM 79648). (c) Reconstruction of the skull of Shringasaurus indicus in dorsal view. (d–g) Partial skull tables of Shringasaurus indicus in dorsal views (ISIR 781, 780, 786, 789, 790 from left to right), one side has been digitally mirrored in (d–f). (h–k) Partial skull tables of Shringasaurus indicus in left lateral views (ISIR 781, 780, 786, 790 from left to right). Specimens (d–f) and (h–j) possesses horns and specimen/s (g) and (k) lacks horns.
Scales = 4 cm for (a) and ( c–k), and 20 cm for (b). en, external naris; ho, horn; or, orbit; stf, supratemporal fenestra.

Figure 4: Phylogenetic relationships of Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov. and evolution of body size among early archosauromorphs. (a) Time calibrated strict consensus tree found in the data set analysed here (Supplementary Information). Diapsids more basal than Protorosaurus are not shown and all clades except Allokotosauria have been collapsed for clarity. Numbers at the nodes are Bremer support values higher than 1. (b) Evolution of femoral length (as proxy of body size) optimized as a continuous character using maximum parsimony among non-archosauriform archosauromorphs (Supplementary Information). The horizontal axis represents phylogenetic distance. Green circles represent non-allokotosaurian species, red circles represent allokotosaurians, light blue circles represent non-allokotosaurian ancestral femoral lengths, and violet circles represent allokotosaurian ancestral femoral lengths. The dotted line represents a branch not included in the phylogenetic analysis of this study and the horizontal bar with dotted vertical lines on the right side of the graphic represents the median and standard deviation of Permian to Middle Triassic non-allokotosaurian, non-archosauriform archosauromorph femoral length. a, Crocopoda; b, Allokotosauria; c, Trilophosauridae; d, Azendohsauridae; e, Azendohsaurus.

Systematic Palaeontology

Diapsida Osborn, 1903
Archosauromorpha Huene, 1946 sensu Dilkes19

Allokotosauria Nesbitt et al., 2015
Azendohsauridae Nesbitt et al., 2015

Shringasaurus indicus gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: Śṛṅga’ (Shringa), horn (ancient Sanskrit), and ‘sauros’ (σαῦρος), lizard (ancient Greek), referring to the horned skull; ‘indicus’, Indian (Latin English), refers to the country where such species was discovered.

Holotype: ISIR (Indian Statistical Institute, Reptile, India) 780: partial skull roof (prefrontal, frontal, postfrontal, and parietal) with a pair of large supraorbital horns (Fig. 2e,i).

Locality and horizon: Near Tekapar village, Hoshangabad district, Madhya Pradesh, India (Fig. 1); Denwa Formation, Anisian, early Middle Triassic18, Satpura Gondwana Basin.

Diagnosis: Relatively large (3–4 m total body length; Fig. S1) allokotosaurian archosauromorph that differs from other stem-archosaurs in the following combination of character-states: confluent external nares; pair of anterodorsally oriented supraorbital horns; similar sized and leaf-shaped marginal and palatal teeth with large denticles; middle-posterior cervical, dorsal, and at least the first two caudal vertebrae with mammillary processes on the neural spines; middle-posterior cervical, dorsal, and sacral vertebrae with hyposphene-hypantrum accessory articulations; cervical vertebrae 2–5 with epipophyses (unknown in Cv6); dorsal vertebrae with spinoprezygapophyseal and spinopostzygapophyseal laminae; dorsal vertebrae 1–12 with spinodiapophyseal laminae; anterior dorsal vertebrae with neural spines two times taller than its respective centrum (see Supplementary Information for differential diagnosis).

Shringasaurus indicus Sengupta, Ezcurra & Bandyopadhyay, 2017
Illustration: Gabriel Lio 

Saradee Sengupta, Martín D. Ezcurra and Saswati Bandyopadhyay. 2017. A New Horned and Long-necked Herbivorous Stem-Archosaur from the Middle Triassic of India.  Scientific Reports. 7, Article number: 8366.  DOI: s41598-017-08658-8

 Cómo era el mundo cuando vivía el Shringasaurus indicus via @LANACION
Encuentran en India un reptil con cuernos de 240 millones de años

[Entomology • 2017] Pyrophleps ellawi • A New Species of Wasp-mimicking Clearwing Moth (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Peninsular Malaysia with DNA Barcode and Behavioural Notes

 Pyrophleps ellawi Skowron Volponi, 2017

Figure 1. Pyrophleps ellawi has a strong blue sheen in sunlight. Representatives of this species vary in the number of orange scales on the thorax. The scales form two longitudinal stripes, either dashed or solid.

A new species of clearwing moth, Pyrophleps ellawi Skowron Volponi, sp. n., is described from Peninsular Malaysia. Information on the habitat, time and conditions of occurrence, flight and mud-puddling behaviour, functional morphology, and DNA barcode are also provided. Photographs and a supplementary video from the wild demonstrate the postures and behaviour of this species of Pyrophleps, whose remaining members were described only on the basis of pinned specimens. This is the first record of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia.

Keywords: Sesiidae, clearwing moth, Pyrophleps ellawi, mimicry, mud-puddling, behaviour, Malaysia

Figure 3. Male holotype of Pyrophleps ellawi.

Diagnosis: The new species is superficially most similar to Pyrophleps vitripennis, from which it can easily be distinguished by the configuration of male genitalia (compare Fig. 4 herein with Arita and Gorbunov 2000, fig. 6), presence of hair-like scales on labial palpi (smoothly scaled in species compared), presence of orange hair-like scales on fore- and mid tibiae and lack of orange scales on wings, broader external transparent area of forewing. Apart from morphological features, P. ellawi shows 8% COI sequence divergence from P. vitripennis (Table 1). Based on genitalia configuration, this species is most similar to P. nigripennis. However, it differs in the shape of the valva and gnathos. Besides that, it can immediately be distinguished by the well-developed transparent areas of forewing (compare Fig. 3 herein with Arita and Gorbunov 2000, fig. 8), narrow discal spot on hindwing and by the colouration of the hind leg tuft (extensive red both externally, on tibia, and internally, on tibiae and tarsi, in P. nigripennis). From P. ruficrista it differs in more developed forewing ATA and PTA and less developed ETA and in the hind leg tuft (cinnabar red with two black spots and patches of blue scales in P. ruficrista). From P. cruentata, P. haematochrodes , P. cucphuonganae and P. bicella, it can be distinguished by the entirely transparent hindwings and absence of red scales on wings and abdomen.

Figure 1. Pyrophleps ellawi has a strong blue sheen in sunlight. Representatives of this species vary in the number of orange scales on the thorax. The scales form two longitudinal stripes, either dashed or solid. 

Figure 2. Pyrophleps ellawi puddling on a river bank. Note the curled-up hind leg tarsi.

Etymology: The species is named after our dear friend El Law, a dedicated conservation activist with sincere sensibility for Malaysian nature who, over the years of our studies on Malaysian Sesiidae, offered us his help in countless aspects.

Distribution and habitat: In addition to the type locality, the species is known also from the Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia, where it was observed and filmed in two locations approx. 50 km from each other. All observations were done on sandy and pebble river banks exposed to sunlight, in a lowland dipterocarp forest (Fig. 5)

Figure 5. Habitat of Pyrophleps ellawi: sandy/pebble river banks in a lowland dipterocarp forest, Malaysia.

The new wasp-mimicking species of Sesiidae, Pyrophleps ellawi, represents the first record of the genus Pyrophleps in Peninsular Malaysia and the first filmed in the wild. The video realized in its habitat provided valuable information on its authentic habitus, functional morphology, and behaviour.

 Marta Skowron Volponi and Paolo Volponi. 2017. A New Species of Wasp-mimicking Clearwing Moth from Peninsular Malaysia with DNA Barcode and Behavioural Notes (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae). ZooKeys. 692: 129-139.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.692.13587